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THE ANTARCTIC SIMULATOR

The University of Milano-Bicocca, and the Departement of Earth and Environmental Sciences realize an integrated laboratory with controlled atmosphere for simulate the mean antarctic environmental conditions. Cold rooms till -50°C at very clean environmental conditions, will be used for drive experiments as close as the Antarctic environment.


Link to some interesting informations on Global Change

Links on Conferences and Seminars

Locandina Evento

Ice core drilling progression on

Mandrone Glacier

The drilling end at -225 m depth, after find some sones in the ice core. It is too dangerous for the drilling system to continue. Great shot for the laboratory collaboration and for the ADA270 project.

Drilling Start at Mandrone Glacier

Drilling Start at Mandrone Glacier

The 8th of April 2021, on the Pian di Neve, the accumulation area of the Mandrone Glacier (Adamello Group, Brescia, Italy) start the drilling activities to reach the bedrock at 270 m below the surface.

Headed by Regione Lombardia and including many other regional entities and private sponsors, the University of Mialno-Bicocca chair the scientific activity in collaboration with Paul Scherer Institute and The Coherentia spin-up to realize the drilling activities, collect the ice cores and monitoring the evolution of the glacier.

The bottom of the glacier can preserve ice that can 1 thousand year old, permitting to reconstruct the variability of he regional climate and history of environment of the last millennium.

Covid-19 emission impact

The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) provides daily analyses of hourly concentrations of regulatory air pollutants. These can serve as “ground truth” to assess quantitatively, and in more details, the changes in concentrations identified by satellites and attributed to the effects of COVID-19 measures across the world. In figure the emissions in January and March 2020 along the Po Plain in Northern Italy.

Commentary on Science

The recent EuroCold Lab collaboration paper, publish on Nature Communication, create strong interest on the scienific community as demontrate the news on Science journal.


Researchers have discovered a common martian mineral deep within an ice core from Antarctica. The find suggests the mineral—a brittle, yellowbrown substance known as jarosite—was forged the same way on both Earth and Mars: from dust trapped within ancient ice deposits. It also reveals how important these glaciers were on the Red Planet: Not only did they carve valleys, the researchers say, but they also helped create the very stuff Mars is made of.

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2021/01/substance-found-antarctic-ice-may-solve-martian-mystery


From Antarctica to Mars

On Nature Communication the first result comparing Antartic formations of mineral in deep Antarctic glacier and the possible glacier effects on Mars.

Many interpretations have been proposed to explain the presence of jarosite within Martian surficial sediments, including the possibility that it precipitated within paleo-ice deposits owing to englacial weathering of dust. However, until now a similar geochemical process was not observed on Earth nor in other planetary settings. We report a multi-analytical indication of jarosite formation within deep ice. Below 1000 m depth, jarosite crystals adhering on residual silica-rich particles have been identified in the Talos Dome ice core (East Antarctica) and interpreted as products of weathering involving aeolian dust and acidic atmospheric aerosols. The progressive increase of ice metamorphism and re-crystallization with depth, favours the relocation and concentration of dust and the formation of acidic brines in isolated environments, allowing chemical reactions and mineral neo-formation to occur. This is the first described englacial diagenetic mechanism occurring in deep Antarctic ice and supports the ice-weathering model for jarosite formation on Mars, highlighting the geologic importance of paleo ice-related processes on this planet. Additional implications concern the preservation of dust-related signals in deep ice cores with respect to paleoclimatic reconstructions and the englacial history of meteorites from Antarctic blue ice fields.

Baccolo, G., Delmonte, B., Niles, P.B. et al. Jarosite formation in deep Antarctic ice provides a window into acidic, water-limited weathering on Mars. Nat Commun 12, 436 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20705-z


Minerals
Minerals
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A pilot study of eDNA metabarcoding to estimate plant biodiversity by an alpine glacier core (Adamello glacier, North Italy)

Ice Core, DNA and Biodiversity on the Alps

Current biodiversity loss is a major concern and thus biodiversity assessment of modern ecosystems is compelling and needs to be contextualized on a longer timescale. In this ice core study, a collaboration between Fondazione Mach (Italy) , Uppsala Univerity (Sweden), MUSE Trento (Italy) and Eurocold Lab, University of Milano Bicocca (Italy), we tested, for the first time, the potential of HTS to estimate plant biodiversity archived in the surface layers of a temperate alpine glacier, amplifying the trnL barcode for vascular plants from eDNA of firn samples. Results highlighted the presence of pollen and plant remains within the distinct layers of snow, firn and ice. DNA metabarcoding described distinct plant species composition among the different samples, with a broad taxonomic representation of the biodiversity of the catchment area and a high-ranking resolution. New knowledge on climate and plant biodiversity changes of large catchment areas can be obtained by this novel approach, relevant for future estimates of climate change effects.


Claudio Varotto, Massimo Pindo, Elena Bertoni, Christian Casarotto, Federica Camin, Matteo Girardi, Valter Maggi & Antonella Cristofori

Scientific Reports, 11, article 1208 (2021)

Minerals

SEM images of dust grains extracted from TALDICE sections at 1,560 m depth (a, c, d, f) and 1534 m depth (b, e). 110 Scale bar: 1 μm.

https://eartharxiv.org/repository/view/233/

Department of Environmental and Earth Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy; INFN, section of Milano-Bicocca, Italy; NASA Johnson Space Center, USA; Diamond Light Source, UK; Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Italy; Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Italy; Rome International Center for Materials Science - Superstripes, Italy; Department of Earth Sciences, Hong Kong; Jacobs, NASA Johnson Space Center, USA; Department of Science, University Roma Tre, Italy.



Many interpretations have been proposed to explain the presence of jarosite within Martian surficial sediments, including the possibility that it precipitated within paleo-ice deposits owing to englacial weathering of dust. But until now a similar mechanism was not observed on Earth nor in other planetary settings. We report the first multi-analytical indication of jarosite formation within deep ice. Below 1000 m depth, jarosite crystals adhering on residual silica-rich particles have been identified in the Talos Dome ice core (East Antarctica) and interpreted as products of weathering involving aeolian mineral dust and acidic atmospheric aerosols. It supports the ice-weathering model for jarosite formation on Mars, highlighting the geologic importance of paleo ice-related processes on this planet. Additional implications concern the preservation of dust-related signals in deep ice cores with respect to paleoclimatic reconstructions and the englacial history of meteorites from Antarctic blue ice fields.

A 3800 year-long radiocarbon-dated and highly-resolved palaeoecological record from Lake Fimon (N-Italy) served to investigate the effects of potential teleconnections between North Atlantic and mid-to-low latitudes at the transition from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 to 2. The high median time-resolution of 58 years allows the identification of five abrupt event-boundaries (i.e., main forest expansion and decline excursions) synchronous with the sharp stadial/interstadial (GS/GI) transitions within dating uncertainties. During Heinrich Stadial 3 (HS 3) we reconstruct more open and dry conditions, compared to the other GS, with a dominant regional scale fire signal. Linkages between local fires and climate-driven fuel changes resulted in high-magnitude fire peaks close to GI/GS boundaries, even exacerbated by local peatland conditions. WThe authorse hypothesise that this signal, broadly resembling that of other mid-latitudes proxies, may be attributed to the southward shift of the Northern Hemisphere storm tracks and the associated delayed iceberg discharge events as documented during other HS.

Publish on open access Nature Scientific Report


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New teaser of BEYOND EPICA project

The BEYOND EPICA project, prodice a new teaser, publish in YouTube, for show which are the aims of the deep drilling activity programming in the East Antarctic plateau. The goal is reaching the 1.5 milllion year records of greenhouse gases and atmospheric compounds to understand the naural varaibility of the planetary climate before the Homo sapiens appair.

East Antarctic International Ice Sheet Traverse

Una 'traversa' sul plateau in Antartide per stimare l'aumento del livelo dei mari. Dal 5 dicembre 2019 al 25 gennaio 2020, una squadra composta da scienziati francesi del Cnrs, dell'Università Grenoble Alpes e da scienziati italiani del Cnr e dell'Ingv percorrerà 1318 km tra andata e ritorno in mezzo al plateau dell'Antartide, su una traversa organizzata dall'Istituto Polare Francese (Ipev) con la collaborazione del Programma nazionale di ricerche in Antartide (Pnra). Tra i ricercatori italiani sarà presente in campo Andrea Spolaor del CNR-ISP.

East Antarctic International Ice Sheet Traverse

French, Italian and Australian scientists unite their knowledge and capability to study the interior of the Antarctic plateau between the French-Italian Concordia station (75°S, 123° E), and the US South Pole station (90°S). The scientific objectives of EAIIST are to study the icy terrain of the Antarctic continent in its driest places.

Beyond Epica
Beyond Epica


The International project for retrieve 1.5 million year, from a continuous ice core to bedrock in Antarctica, covering the climate history of the Mid Pleistocene Transition and beyond.


Lezione Zero "Milano Bicocca: la sostenibilità come obiettivo comune"


Una iniziativa di sensibilizzazione sui temi della sostenibilità realizzata in avvio di anno accademico in collaborazione con BASE – Bicocca Ambiente Società Economia, destinata a tutti i nostri studenti, indipendentemente dalla specifica area di formazione.

Nella lezione i temi verranno affrontati con un approccio trasversale, vista la rilevanza che tutte le discipline hanno in questo ambito.

Nel corso dell'evento verranno presentate le attività di didattica, di ricerca e terza missione che l'Università svolge sui temi della sostenibilità, e le tante iniziative in programma, per rendere la nostra comunità sempre più attenta all'ambiente e alla società che ci circondano.


Lezione Zero
Locandina

GIORNATA MONDIALE

DELL'AMBIENTE 2020

GHIACCIO BOLLENTE: LA RICERCA SUI CAMBIAMENTI CLIMATICI DALLE ALPI AL POLO SUD.

COLLEGAMENTO LIVE CON LA STAZIONE CONCORDIA ANTARTIDE

In occasione della Giornata Mondiale dell’Ambiente 2020 Time for Nature, la Centrale dell’Acqua di Milano ha organizzato un evento speciale insieme ad ENEA, Università di Roma Tre, Università Statale di Milano, Università Milano Bicocca e Comitato Glaciologico Italiano.

L’incontro on line ha l’obiettivo di far conoscere la ricerca sui cambiamenti climatici attraverso lo studio della criosfera – la superfice terrestre coperta di ghiacci, ovvero l’acqua solida presente sul nostro pianeta - dando voce agli scienziati attivi sul campo.

La diretta sarà un’occasione unica per poter conoscere il lavoro e la vita quotidiana dei ricercatori del PNRA (Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide), attraverso un collegamento live con la base di ricerca Concordia che si trova nel continente di ghiaccio dell’Antartide.

Introdurranno e dialogheranno con i ricercatori in Antartide alcuni tra i più rilevanti glaciologi italiani: prof. Massimo Frezzotti(presidente del Comitato Glaciologico Italiano, Università Roma Tre), prof.ssa Guglielmina Diolaiuti (Università Statale di Milano), prof. Valter Maggi (Università Bicocca di Milano).

Situata a 75° 06′ sud, 123°21′est e distante circa 1200 km dalla costa, a 3230 m di altezza, la Stazione Concordia è stata costituita in sinergia da Italia e Francia. E’ costituita da due edifici comunicanti per mezzo di un passaggio coperto. Ogni cilindro si compone di tre piani, e ospita stanze da letto, laboratori scientifici e locali per i servizi fondamentali (ciclo dell’acqua, motore per la generazione di energia elettrica, calore….). Un medico specialista per le emergenze trascorre l’inverno a Concordia. La stazione Concordia ospita ricerche di astrofisica, sismologia, fisica dell’atmosfera e climatologia, biologia e medicina.

Minerals

SEM images of dust grains extracted from TALDICE sections at 1,560 m depth (a, c, d, f) and 1534 m depth (b, e). Scale bar: 1 µm.

From Antarctica to Mars

New research from Eurocod Lab, in collaboration with INFN, Diamond Synchrotron, University of Roma 3 and NASA, for understanad the presence of some hydrate minerals on the Mars surface.

The article is now open source on Eartharxiv.org.

Baccolo et al., 2020. Jarosite formation in deep Antarctic ice provides a window into acidic, water-limited weathering on Mars


Many interpretations have been proposed to explain the presence of jarosite, a ferric-potassium hydroxide sulfate [KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6], within Martian surficial sediments, including the possibility that it precipitated within paleo-ice deposits owing to englacial weathering of dust. This is the first described englacial diagenetic mechanism occurring in TALDICE ice core, and supports the ice-weathering model for jarosite formation on Mars, highlighting the geologic importance of paleo ice-related processes on this planet.


Nature Communication
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East Greenland ice core dust record reveals timing of Greenland ice sheet advance and retreat

Accurate estimates of the past extent of the Greenland ice sheet provide critical constraints for ice sheet models used to determine Greenland’s response to climate forcing and contribution to global sea level.

Barbara Delmonte and Giovanni Baccolo from EUROCOLD LAB are two of the authors.

The link to the article is: https://go.nature.com/2puOzXt


Condensed Matter Researches in Cryospheric Science

Condensed Matter Researches in Cryospheric Science

Augusto Marcelli, Valter Maggi and Cunde Xiao (Eds.)

Pages: 144

Published: September 2019

ISBN 978-3-03921-323-8 (Pbk); ISBN 978-3-03921-324-5 (PDF)

https://doi.org/10.3390/books978-3-03921-324-5 (registering DOI)

© 2019 by the authors; CC BY-NC-ND licence

https://www.mdpi.com/books/pdfview/book/1550 - Free Download

These results presented in this book highlights of some of the most recent advances in cryospheric studies, especially in relation to mineral dust and aerosols in the atmosphere. They evidence the complexity of chemical–physical processes involving solid compounds occurring in glacier, snow, and permafrost environments, covering different aspects such as spatial and temporal trends, as well as the impact of the mineral and non-mineral particles. These studies also demonstrate the need for collaborative interdisciplinary and transnational efforts to better understand the challenges of the present climatic and environmental research studies on Earth, but also out of the Earth’s system. The results show that recent advances in measurement techniques and source apportionment are powerful and sophisticated tools that may provide novel high-quality scientific information but represent only the first challenging step.


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Perforabilità delle Alpi Italiane

Uno studio del DISAT che ha permesso di visualizzare la possibilità di un ghiacciaio Alpino di poter fornire registrazioni su come il clima e l'ambiente si è modificato.


A DISAT research that permit to show the ability of a glacier to be drilled for climate and envorponmetal studies.

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